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In many European countries, invasive seizure registration in complex patients is principally performed by implanting subdural electrodes frequently in combination with intrahippocampal depth electrodes. These electrodes have a dual function: extra-operative registration of seizure onset and spread versus extra-operative stimulation of eloquent cortex, usually for language mapping. This approach is appropriate for patients with a supposed epileptogenic focus on the cortical surface and a well-elaborated hypothesis on where this focus may probably be localized.

By this technique, intracerebral depth electrodes can be targeted precisely, by means of framebased stereotactic or frame-less neuronavigational methods, to gray matter areas in the depth of the brain, e. As MRI techniques become more advanced and consequently more subtle malformations of cortical development MCD being detected, the indications for use of SEEG, eventually in combination with surface electrodes, will increase.

Nowadays, these conceptual differences in the preoperative workup still exist, but many epilepsy surgery working groups, including those in The Netherlands, the USA, and Germany also start using the SEEG technique next to the surface electrodes.

Epilepsy surgery in Europe: a historical review

There is a growing mondial tendency to combine these conceptually different invasive registration and stimulation techniques in the workup of epilepsy surgery candidates. Modern epileptology and epilepsy surgery in Europe started Fig. Hughlings Jackson was one of the first neurologists to suggest a causal relation between seizures and dysfunctional cortical neurons. At about the same time, Hitzig and Fritsch, in Berlin, demonstrated the cortical motor representations of the four extremities in the dog.

Penfield and Jasper introduced electrocorticography with subdural electrodes in the s in Montreal. This was followed by an introduction of these techniques in the s and s, in especially the Anglo-Saxon countries. This marked the start of a new era of invasive seizure registration. Nowadays, there is a growing tendency to use a combination of these two different implantation techniques tailored to the complexity of each patient. The introduction of the operation microscope and microsurgical instruments by well-known neurosurgeons as G. Yasargil and L. Malis — , in addition to the advent of the bipolar coagulation forceps in the s—s [71], led to an important step forward in microneurosurgery.

In the years after the introduction of the operation microscope, important new resection techniques in the field of epilepsy surgery developed all over the world, including selective amygdalohippocampectomy [79, ,] and functional hemispherotomy [91, , ]. From the s on, one saw an expansion in the number of epilepsy surgeries performed in Western European countries but also starting in Portugal and Spain at that time.

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In Greece, epilepsy surgery started two decades later at the end of the s. With the advent of the MRI and its technological development, tiny congenital lesions could be visualized.

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After correlating these lesions to the ictal onset zone, more sophisticated microsurgical techniques, the use of neuronavigation and intraoperative 3-T MRI, lead to the performance of epilepsy surgical procedures with high success rates. Today, a dedicated multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery working group is indispensable to establish an accurate radiological and neurophysiological diagnosis, to conceptualize the ictal onset zone, and to resect that specific part of the brain in order to obtain the highest chance for seizure freedom with the lowest risk for functional deficit.

In almost all European centers for epilepsy surgery, nowadays, multidisciplinary working groups exist. References 1. Arts N Epilepsy through the ages, an anthology of classic writings on epilepsy. Epilepsia 46 7 — 3.

Museum Vrolik – Amsterdam, Netherlands - Atlas Obscura

Neurochirurgie — 4. Rev Neurol Paris — 5. Bancaud J, Talairach J, Bresson M, Morel P Epileptic attacks induced by stimulation of the amygdaloid nucleus and horn of Ammon value of stimulation in the determination of temporal epilepsy in humans. Rev Neurol Paris 6. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol — 7.

Can J Neurol Sci — 8.

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Bancaud J, Talairach J, Schaub C Stereotaxic functional exploration of the epilepsies of the supplementary areas of the mesial surface of the hemisphere. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 9. Clin Neurophysiol — Arch Psychiat Nervenkr — Lancet — Neurology — Broca P Sur la trepanation du crane et les amulettes craniennes neolithiques. Bull Acad Med — Brain: J Neurol — Cook J History and method of cure of the varies species of epilepsy. Fol Psychiat Neurol Neurochir Neerl —71 Falconer MA, Pond DA Temporal lobe epilepsy with personality and behaviour disorders caused by an unusual calcifying lesion.

Report of 2 cases in children relieved by temporal lobectomy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry — J Neurosurg 99 1 — Ferrier D On the localisation of the functions of the brain.

Surgery in the 3rd Millennium: The future is female

Br Med J — Ferrier D An address on the progress of knowledge in the physiology and pathology of the nervous system. BMJ — Foerster O, Penfield W The structural basis of traumatic epilepsy and results of radical operation. Prog Brain Res —61 Results after a minimum follow-up of five years.

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Acta Neurochir Suppl Wien — Report of 4 cases treated according to the method described by J. Talairach et al. Appl Neurophysiol 45 — Garganis K, Kokkinos V, Zountsas B Limited resections of focal cortical dysplasia and associated epileptogenic cortex may lead to positive surgical outcome. Epileptic Disord 13 4 — Epilepsia — A historical essay. J Nerv Ment Dis 4 — Rev Neurol 29 7 : — Krabbe, Stuttgart, Germany Guillaume J, Mazars G Indications and results of surgical treatment of temporal epilepsy. Sem Hop — Guillaume J, Mazars G, Mazars Y Peroperative corticographic recording of epileptogenic foci and control of the area of the necessary excision.

Rev Neurol Paris — Guillaume J, Roge R, Mazars G Epilepsy; electroencephalographic localization and excision of the tumor under electrographic control; immediate cessation of crises. Rev Neurol Paris —57 Hagner M The electrical excitability of the brain: toward the emergence of an experiment.

J Hist Neurosci — Haider M, Gangelberger JA, Groll-Knapp E Computer analysis of subcortical and cortical evoked potentials and of slow potential phenomena in humans. Confin Neurol — Seizure 16 3 — Henriksen O Perspectives of epilepsy care in Norway. Neurology 48 suppl 8 :S20—S24 Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, pp — Acta Neurochir — Horsley V Brain surgery. Horsley V Trephining in the Neolithic period. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg — Ann Neurol — Jackson JH On convulsive seizures. In, vol 1. Hodder and Stoughton, London Jackson JH Selected writings. Arts and Boeve, Nijmegen Review of 20 cases including some unique malformative lesions. J Neurosurg —61 Jensen I, Vaernet K Temporal lobe epilepsy. Acta Neurochirurgica — Jutila L, Immonen A, Mervaala E Long term outcome of temporal lobe epilepsy surgery: analysis of consecutive patients. JNNP — Epileptic Disord 8 suppl 2 :S16—S25 Kinnier Wilson J, Reynolds E Translation and analysis of a cuneiform text forming part of a Babylonian treatise on epilepsy J Neurosurg — Med Hist — Koehler PJ Het neurologisch onderzoek in eponiemen.

Brain: J Neurol Pt 8 — Arch Neurol — J Hist Neurosci 10 3 — The role of presurgical neuroimaging in a young case of a large porencephalic cyst with intractable epilepsy. Pediatr Neurosurg 47 3 — Brain Topogr 25 3 — Neurosurgery — Epileptic Disord Epilepsia 45 suppl 3 Pediatric Neurol 33 3 — Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart Enke-Verlag, Stuttgart Informa Healthcare, London Macewen W Clinical observations on the introduction of tracheal tubes by the mouth instead of performing tracheotomy or laryngotomy. J Hist Neurosci 13 4 — Macmillan M William Macewen J Neurol — Malis LI Bipolar coagulation in microsurgery.

Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, pp — Malmgren K, Rydenhag B Temporal lobe resections for epilepsy. Epilepsia 41 suppl 7 A heterogeneous and related group of tumours. Histol Histopathol 16 2 — J Neurosurg Sci 44 4 — Munari C, Francione S, Kahane P Multilobar resections for the control of epilepsy, vol 2, 3rd edn, Operative neurosurgical techniques. WB Saunders company, Philadelphia Acta Neurol Scand —67 Adv Neurol — Epilepsia 54 5 :e62—e Niemeyer P The transventricular amygdalohippocampectomy in temporal lobe epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy.

Charles C Thomas, Springfield Olivecrona H Neurosurgery, past and present. Acta Neurochir —8 Oliver B, Russi A What is needed for resective epilepsysurgery from a neurosurgical point of view. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl — Epilepsia 46 suppl 6 Epilepsia 49 2 — Ostrowsky K, Isnard J, Ryvlin P Functional mapping of the insular cortex: clinical implication in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epileptic Disord 8 suppl 2 :S10—S15 Epilepsia 49 3 — Epilepsia 51 4 — Neurosurgery 50 6 — Neurosurgery 49 1 —55 Sarikcioglu L Otfrid Foerster : one of the distinguished neuroscientists of his time.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry Neurosurgery 49 4 — A ct a Neurochirurgica Suppl —55 Med Hist 22 3 — Schurr P Murray Alexander Falconer. Acta Neurochir 40 :1—3 Acta Neurol Scand — Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr — Stol M Epilepsy in Babylonia. The truth of this in the Netherlands is witnessed by a number of dissertations and monographs and especially by the numerous articles related to the history of surgery which have appeared in the medical weekly Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, particularly during the two decades preceding the Second World War.

The memorial volume, published in by the 'Nederlandse Vereniging voor Heelkunde' Association of Surgeons of the Netherlands has thoroughly covered the history of Dutch surgery since the tum of the century, but a chronological survey of the earlier events which led to these modem achievements is still wanting. This book has been written with a view to meeting this need. In it, Dutch surgery has by no means been taken as an isolated phenomenon, but considered in its context with European surgery as a whole. It is hoped that this approach will allow the book to exceed the narrow boundaries of'campanilismo' and make it of interest to non-Dutch readers as well.

Toon meer Toon minder. Recensie s This book is a splendid concise history of several thousand years of Western surgery Betrokkenen Auteur D. Moulin Co-auteur D. Moulin Uitgever Springer. Reviews Schrijf een review. Kies je bindwijze. Verwacht over 7 weken Levertijd We doen er alles aan om dit artikel op tijd te bezorgen. The ultimate goal of this research is to maximize the reconstructive outcomes and quality of life while minimizing the disability caused to the donor tissue sites.

Functional, Aesthetic and Quality of Life Outcomes I have a strong interest in the functional, aesthetic and quality of life outcomes after reconstructive surgery and have received grant funding for research projects investigating these outcomes.

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